Academic & Law Serials


National Geographer, Vol.L, No.1 + 2 (Jan-June, July-Dec. 2015), Pages 95-102

Assessment of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Condition in Urban Slums – A Case Study of Chakiya Slum in Allahabad City
Neda Waheed and A.R. Siddiqui
Allahabad University,
Availability of improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene is the greatest challenge around the globe. Safe drinking water, sanitation and decent hygiene are the basic requirements for health, survival, growth and development. Although, these basic amenities are still a dream for many of the world’s poor people. According to Millenium Development Goal Report more than 1.1 billion people do not use drinking water from improved source whereas 2.6 billion do not have basic sanitation (MDG). Lack of adequate water supply and poor sanitation condition is one of the major challenges faced by poor urban populations. Safe drinking water and basic sanitation are vital to health that they risk being taken for granted. As a result, majority of population in Allahabad suffer from different kinds of water and vector borne diseases that aggravate in their poverty situations. The main objective of the study is to investigate water facility, sanitation condition and personal hygiene practice in urban slums of Allahabad. During the study period, the data and informations have been collected by primary survey using a well structure questionnaire method. The present study found that majority of slum dwellers have lack of adequate water, sanitation system and hygiene practice.
Key words: Adequate, Sanitation, Hygiene knowledge, Risk, Amenities.
A slum is a dense area with 300 residents or that has 60-70% of the households having congested rooms with poor infrastructure, lack of proper sanitation and drinking water facilities (Census of India 2011). Water is the most precious natural resource and is essential for existence of life on earth. The availability of safe water and adequate sanitation system is critical for health reasons as well as economic development (Pore S.M et al. 2014). Slum population has largely increased in Allahabad city over the last three decades along with the growth and expansion of cities. Urban poverty is largely due to the transfer of the rural poor to urban areas (Rayhan 2005). Slums lack proper arrangement of water supply and sanitation facilities that create an adverse effect on city’s environment. In the absence of sanitary latrines, certainly human as well as general house hold waste reaches the surface water bodies (Biplob P et al. 2011). Water, sanitation and hygiene are inter-related hence they are considered as one item called WASH. WASH constitutes both provision of water and sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion (Kalenga M. 2012). Improving drinking water, sanitation and hygiene is one of the major concerns globally. Though 89% of the world’s population has access to drinking water facilities, about 768 million people rely on unimproved drinking water-sources; 83% of them residing in rural areas (WHO/UNICEF, 2013 and UN-MDGs, 2013 ). 1.9 billion people gained access to improved sanitation facility over a period of two decades ( 1990 to 2011) with an average rate of 240,000 individuals gaining access every day. 8% of Indian population is still devoid of clean water, and only 25% of population have access to piped water in premises (WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2013).