Academic & Law Serials

Articles

Indian Journal of Social Research Vol. 59 (5) (Sep. - Oct., 2018) (671-686) 

Female Education and its Impact on Economic Growth in India with Special Reference to Assam

Roselin Basumatary

Assistant Professor, Economics
Kokrajhar Government College
District: Kokrajhar, Assam, India
 
Abstract
 
Education seeks to nourish the good qualities and draw out the best in an individual. Education is a main driver of development. To examine female education in India with special reference to Assam, the paper examines the female literacy rate for the period 1991-2011; female illiteracy rate, never attended rate and attended before rate for the age groups 7-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-59, 60+, age not stated for the year 2011; Lower Primary level (LP) and Upper Primary level (UP) female Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) and female Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) for the period 2013-14 to 2015-16; LP and UP female Dropout Rate (DOR) for the period 2007-08 to 2014-15; Secondary level (Secondary) and Higher Secondary level (HS) female GER for the period 2010-11 to 2015-16; Secondary and HS female NER for the period 2012-13 to 2015-16; Secondary and HS female DOR for the period 2012-13 to 2014-15 and Higher Education level (HE) female GER for the period 2011-12 to 2015-16 by using secondary data. The paper also investigates the impact of female education on economic growth in India and Assam using time series data and regression analysis. It is found that, although female literacy rate increased in Assam and in India as whole, 100 per cent female literacy has not been achieved. Moreover, females who are illiterates, never attended and attended before are found in all the age groups and, illiterate females and never attended females increased with the higher age groups while females attended before at first increased with the higher age groups and later it declined with the higher age groups. Although female GER in the LP, UP and Secondary and female NER in LP and UP in India and in Assam are found high, female NER in Secondary, female GER and female NER in HS and female GER in HE in India and in Assam are found to be low. Female DOR is found in all the levels of education in India as a whole and in Assam. Compared to the female DOR in LP, UP and HS, female DOR is found to be higher in Secondary. The regression results reveal that the impact of female education on economic growth in India as well as in Assam was significantly positive. Low household income, performance of household duties, society’s attitude, distance of learning place, no knowledge of relevance of literacy or adult literacy or lifelong learning and low level of parents education are found to be factors behind illiterate females’ inability to access literacy in Baksa district of Assam. 
 
Keywords: Female, Education, Literacy, Economic, Growth.