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Indian Journal of Social Research Vol.54 (5) (Sep - Oct, 2013) (455-464)

SOLUTIONS TO THE CONSTRAINTS PERCEIVED BY THE VETERINARY ASSISTANT SURGEONS AND DAIRY FARMERS IN ASSAM

M N Ray
Professor, Department of Extension Education
College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University
Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, Assam

K K Saharia
Professor and Head, Department of Extension Education
College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University
Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, Assam

J Sarma
S.M.S., KVK, Napam

D Brahma
Programme Assistant, KVK, Nalbari

Abstract

The study was conducted keeping in view the two dimensions of constraints – one is the clientele system and the other is the change agent system. As for the clientele system, 200 dairy farmers from Kamrup district of Assam were selected at random. On the other hand, for the change agent system, a total of 50 Veterinary Assistant Surgeons (VAS) were selected at random from the entire state.

“Farmers keep local bulls uncastrated and use it for natural service” was a social constraint ranked I by VASs and VI by farmers. Another social constraint “ Lack of functional literacy among farmers” was given rank I by farmers and IV by VASs.

Among the psychological constraints “Improved breed animals invite complications” was ranked I by VASs and II by farmers. Similarly “Farmers believe that crossbred bullocks are not fit for draught purpose” was ranked II and III respectively by farmers and VASs. Both VASs and farmers assigned I rank to “High cost of veterinary medicine and vaccine” Similarly both of the respondents assigned I rank to “Lack of knowledge of farmers in scientific breeding, feeding, management and disease control.” Among the technology related constraint “Repeat breeding and A.I.” was ranked I by VASs and II by farmers, another constraint “Untrained para-veterinarians” was ranked I by farmers and III by VASs. Both farmers and VASs ranked I the constraint “Non availability of medicine and vaccine in the veterinary hospitals and dispensaries.” Similar was the case with “Irregular supply of semen in the A.I. centre” which was ranked II by both farmers and VASs.

Among marketing related constraint “Market for selling milk and buying feed, medicine etc is situated at distant place” was ranked I by VASs and II by farmers. “Lack of transport facilities for marketing milk and milk products and buying medicine, feed etc” was ranked I by farmers and IV by dairy farmers.

Among the situational constraints “Non-availability of green fodder all the year” was ranked I by VASs and VI by farmers. “Natural calamities like flood” was ranked I by farmers and III by VASs.

The two political constraints – among which “Corruption by politicians and bureaucrats is a great hindrance to dairy development” was ranked I by VASs and II by farmers and “Political interference in the selection of beneficiaries” was ranked I by farmers and III by VASs.

Key words: Constraint, Farmer, Veterinary Assistant Surgeon (VAS)

Introduction

The Oxford English dictionary meaning of constraint is confinement, restriction of liberty or compulsion of circumstances or compulsion put upon the behaviour. Constraints may also be defined as the feelings of client system, which it perceives, blocks the path of development and may emnate not only from research and extension system but also from its social, economic and political system. In this age of technology, development programmes are undertaken to provide maximum benefit to clients by enabling them to undertake activities utilizing appropriate technologies. In doing so, the beneficiaries face a number of problems not only in the technology itself and the change agents delivering it to them but also from their social economic and political system. These problems, also called constraints of development, need to be enquired by the development administration in order to provide remedial measures. In the process of identifying the constraints and providing solutions thereof the participation of the beneficiaries will be of immense help since none but the beneficiaries themselves experience the actual problems blocking the path of development. The pace of development in Assam is usually slow and dairying is no exception to this. The milk production scenario in the state looks still gloomy with an annual yield of 711 million litres making the per capita availability of milk as poultry as 87 gm.

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