Academic & Law Serials


Indian Journal of Social Research Vol.53 (6) (Nov - Dec, 2012) (537 - 543)


H S Grewal
Research Associate, Department of Entomology
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141 004

A K Dhawan
Head, Department of Entomology
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141 004

Maninder Kaur
Research Associate, Department of Entomology
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141 004

Varinder Pal Singh
Ph.D Scholar, Department of Economics and Sociology
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141 004


This study has been undertaken to make cotton production in the state of Punjab globally competitive by reducing the cost of production at farmer’s level through adoption of new pest management technology, namely Integrated Pest Management (IPM). A sample of 450 experimental and 100 control plots has been taken for each technology in 45 IPM and 10 Non-IPM villages of the cotton belt of Punjab. The study has revealed that the adopters of IPM technology could get significantly higher yield as compared to that by non-adopters. This technology have been found cost-effective due to higher production by about 18% and could reduce the per quintal production cost by Rs 324. These technologies have been found to generate more income and employment as the adopters could earn about 36 per cent more income per ha as compared to that by the non-adopters. The gain in human employment due to adoption of this technology has been of 11 human days/ha. The IPM technologies have reduced the pesticides consumption by about half. The cost-benefit analysis has shown this technology to be economically viable. The study has suggested that these technologies should be propagated among the farmers in the cotton belt of Punjab. These technologies will reduce the chemicals-consumption and enhance the productivity of cotton on sustainable basis with lower cost of production, which in turn would protect the environment health and economic condition of the debit-ridden cotton growers on a long-term basis.

Key words: IPM, Cotton, Economic Impact, Pesticides


Cotton the most important source of natural fibre in the world, is cultivated in 80 countries over an area of 34.7 million ha (USDA 2006). India is the principle cotton-producing country in terms of area, cultivating cotton over an area of 9.0 million ha (26% of the total world area). However in terms of production India ranks second, with a production of 4.13 million tones behind china. India has low productivity of 599 kg ha-1 (AICCIP 2007) against the world productivity of 712 kg ha-1 (USDA 2006).The north Indian state of Punjab, with a total geographical area of 5.04 million ha accounts for 1.5% of geographical area of India. The cultivatable area is 4.2 million ha which is 83% of the total geographical area. It produces 22% of the wheat, 12% of rice and 17% of the cotton in the country. The irrigated area is 96% of the total cultivatable area with 188% cropping intensity (Anonymous 2006).

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